The Last Question

Jan 16th, 2010 by adminadam in fiction, prose

The Last Question by Isaac Asimov — © 1956

The last question was asked for the first time, half in jest, on May 21, 2061, at a time when humanity first stepped into the light. The question came about as a result of a five dollar bet over highballs, and it happened this way:

Alexander Adell and Bertram Lupov were two of the faithful attendants of Multivac. As well as any human beings could, they knew what lay behind the cold, clicking, flashing face — miles and miles of face — of that giant computer. They had at least a vague notion of the general plan of relays and circuits that had long since grown past the point where any single human could possibly have a firm grasp of the whole.

Multivac was self-adjusting and self-correcting. It had to be, for nothing human could adjust and correct it quickly enough or even adequately enough — so Adell and Lupov attended the monstrous giant only lightly and superficially, yet as well as any men could. They fed it data, adjusted questions to its needs and translated the answers that were issued. Certainly they, and all others like them, were fully entitled to share in the glory that was Multivac’s.

For decades, Multivac had helped design the ships and plot the trajectories that enabled man to reach the Moon, Mars, and Venus, but past that, Earth’s poor resources could not support the ships. Too much energy was needed for the long trips. Earth exploited its coal and uranium with increasing efficiency, but there was only so much of both.

But slowly Multivac learned enough to answer deeper questions more fundamentally, and on May 14, 2061, what had been theory, became fact.

The energy of the sun was stored, converted, and utilized directly on a planet-wide scale. All Earth turned off its burning coal, its fissioning uranium, and flipped the switch that connected all of it to a small station, one mile in diameter, circling the Earth at half the distance of the Moon. All Earth ran by invisible beams of sunpower.

Seven days had not sufficed to dim the glory of it and Adell and Lupov finally managed to escape from the public function, and to meet in quiet where no one would think of looking for them, in the deserted underground chambers, where portions of the mighty buried body of Multivac showed. Unattended, idling, sorting data with contented lazy clickings, Multivac, too, had earned its vacation and the boys appreciated that. They had no intention, originally, of disturbing it.

They had brought a bottle with them, and their only concern at the moment was to relax in the company of each other and the bottle.

“It’s amazing when you think of it,” said Adell. His broad face had lines of weariness in it, and he stirred his drink slowly with a glass rod, watching the cubes of ice slur clumsily about. “All the energy we can possibly ever use for free. Enough energy, if we wanted to draw on it, to melt all Earth into a big drop of impure liquid iron, and still never miss the energy so used. All the energy we could ever use, forever and forever and forever.”

Lupov cocked his head sideways. He had a trick of doing that when he wanted to be contrary, and he wanted to be contrary now, partly because he had had to carry the ice and glassware. “Not forever,” he said.

“Oh, hell, just about forever. Till the sun runs down, Bert.”

“That’s not forever.”

“All right, then. Billions and billions of years. Twenty billion, maybe. Are you satisfied?”

Lupov put his fingers through his thinning hair as though to reassure himself that some was still left and sipped gently at his own drink. “Twenty billion years isn’t forever.”

“Will, it will last our time, won’t it?”

“So would the coal and uranium.”

“All right, but now we can hook up each individual spaceship to the Solar Station, and it can go to Pluto and back a million times without ever worrying about fuel. You can’t do THAT on coal and uranium. Ask Multivac, if you don’t believe me.”

“I don’t have to ask Multivac. I know that.”

“Then stop running down what Multivac’s done for us,” said Adell, blazing up. “It did all right.”

“Who says it didn’t? What I say is that a sun won’t last forever. That’s all I’m saying. We’re safe for twenty billion years, but then what?” Lupov pointed a slightly shaky finger at the other. “And don’t say we’ll switch to another sun.”

There was silence for a while. Adell put his glass to his lips only occasionally, and Lupov’s eyes slowly closed. They rested.

Then Lupov’s eyes snapped open. “You’re thinking we’ll switch to another sun when ours is done, aren’t you?”

“I’m not thinking.”

“Sure you are. You’re weak on logic, that’s the trouble with you. You’re like the guy in the story who was caught in a sudden shower and who ran to a grove of trees and got under one. He wasn’t worried, you see, because he figured when one tree got wet through, he would just get under another one.”

“I get it,” said Adell. “Don’t shout. When the sun is done, the other stars will be gone, too.”

“Darn right they will,” muttered Lupov. “It all had a beginning in the original cosmic explosion, whatever that was, and it’ll all have an end when all the stars run down. Some run down faster than others. Hell, the giants won’t last a hundred million years. The sun will last twenty billion years and maybe the dwarfs will last a hundred billion for all the good they are. But just give us a trillion years and everything will be dark. Entropy has to increase to maximum, that’s all.”

“I know all about entropy,” said Adell, standing on his dignity.

“The hell you do.”

“I know as much as you do.”

“Then you know everything’s got to run down someday.”

“All right. Who says they won’t?”

“You did, you poor sap. You said we had all the energy we needed, forever. You said ‘forever.'”

“It was Adell’s turn to be contrary. “Maybe we can build things up again someday,” he said.


“Why not? Someday.”


“Ask Multivac.”

You ask Multivac. I dare you. Five dollars says it can’t be done.”

Adell was just drunk enough to try, just sober enough to be able to phrase the necessary symbols and operations into a question which, in words, might have corresponded to this: Will mankind one day without the net expenditure of energy be able to restore the sun to its full youthfulness even after it had died of old age?

Or maybe it could be put more simply like this: How can the net amount of entropy of the universe be massively decreased?

Multivac fell dead and silent. The slow flashing of lights ceased, the distant sounds of clicking relays ended.

Then, just as the frightened technicians felt they could hold their breath no longer, there was a sudden springing to life of the teletype attached to that portion of Multivac. Five words were printed: INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR MEANINGFUL ANSWER.

“No bet,” whispered Lupov. They left hurriedly.

By next morning, the two, plagued with throbbing head and cottony mouth, had forgotten about the incident.

Jerrodd, Jerrodine, and Jerrodette I and II watched the starry picture in the visiplate change as the passage through hyperspace was completed in its non-time lapse. At once, the even powdering of stars gave way to the predominance of a single bright marble-disk, centered.

“That’s X-23,” said Jerrodd confidently. His thin hands clamped tightly behind his back and the knuckles whitened.

The little Jerrodettes, both girls, had experienced the hyperspace passage for the first time in their lives and were self-conscious over the momentary sensation of inside-outness. They buried their giggles and chased one another wildly about their mother, screaming, “We’ve reached X-23 — we’ve reached X-23 — we’ve —-”

“Quiet, children,” said Jerrodine sharply. “Are you sure, Jerrodd?”

“What is there to be but sure?” asked Jerrodd, glancing up at the bulge of featureless metal just under the ceiling. It ran the length of the room, disappearing through the wall at either end. It was as long as the ship.

Jerrodd scarcely knew a thing about the thick rod of metal except that it was called a Microvac, that one asked it questions if one wished; that if one did not it still had its task of guiding the ship to a preordered destination; of feeding on energies from the various Sub-galactic Power Stations; of computing the equations for the hyperspacial jumps.

Jerrodd and his family had only to wait and live in the comfortable residence quarters of the ship.

Someone had once told Jerrodd that the “ac” at the end of “Microvac” stood for “analog computer” in ancient English, but he was on the edge of forgetting even that.

Jerrodine’s eyes were moist as she watched the visiplate. “I can’t help it. I feel funny about leaving Earth.”

“Why for Pete’s sake?” demanded Jerrodd. “We had nothing there. We’ll have everything on X-23. You won’t be alone. You won’t be a pioneer. There are over a million people on the planet already. Good Lord, our great grandchildren will be looking for new worlds because X-23 will be overcrowded.”

Then, after a reflective pause, “I tell you, it’s a lucky thing the computers worked out interstellar travel the way the race is growing.”

“I know, I know,” said Jerrodine miserably.

Jerrodette I said promptly, “Our Microvac is the best Microvac in the world.”

“I think so, too,” said Jerrodd, tousling her hair.

It was a nice feeling to have a Microvac of your own and Jerrodd was glad he was part of his generation and no other. In his father’s youth, the only computers had been tremendous machines taking up a hundred square miles of land. There was only one to a planet. Planetary ACs they were called. They had been growing in size steadily for a thousand years and then, all at once, came refinement. In place of transistors had come molecular valves so that even the largest Planetary AC could be put into a space only half the volume of a spaceship.

Jerrodd felt uplifted, as he always did when he thought that his own personal Microvac was many times more complicated than the ancient and primitive Multivac that had first tamed the Sun, and almost as complicated as Earth’s Planetary AC (the largest) that had first solved the problem of hyperspatial travel and had made trips to the stars possible.

“So many stars, so many planets,” sighed Jerrodine, busy with her own thoughts. “I suppose families will be going out to new planets forever, the way we are now.”

“Not forever,” said Jerrodd, with a smile. “It will all stop someday, but not for billions of years. Many billions. Even the stars run down, you know. Entropy must increase.”

“What’s entropy, daddy?” shrilled Jerrodette II.

“Entropy, little sweet, is just a word which means the amount of running-down of the universe. Everything runs down, you know, like your little walkie-talkie robot, remember?”

“Can’t you just put in a new power-unit, like with my robot?”

The stars are the power-units, dear. Once they’re gone, there are no more power-units.”

Jerrodette I at once set up a howl. “Don’t let them, daddy. Don’t let the stars run down.”

“Now look what you’ve done,” whispered Jerrodine, exasperated.

“How was I to know it would frighten them?” Jerrodd whispered back.

“Ask the Microvac,” wailed Jerrodette I. “Ask him how to turn the stars on again.”

“Go ahead,” said Jerrodine. “It will quiet them down.” (Jerrodette II was beginning to cry, also.)

Jarrodd shrugged. “Now, now, honeys. I’ll ask Microvac. Don’t worry, he’ll tell us.”

He asked the Microvac, adding quickly, “Print the answer.”

Jerrodd cupped the strip of thin cellufilm and said cheerfully, “See now, the Microvac says it will take care of everything when the time comes so don’t worry.”

Jerrodine said, “and now children, it’s time for bed. We’ll be in our new home soon.”

Jerrodd read the words on the cellufilm again before destroying it: INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR A MEANINGFUL ANSWER.

He shrugged and looked at the visiplate. X-23 was just ahead.

VJ-23X of Lameth stared into the black depths of the three-dimensional, small-scale map of the Galaxy and said, “Are we ridiculous, I wonder, in being so concerned about the matter?”

MQ-17J of Nicron shook his head. “I think not. You know the Galaxy will be filled in five years at the present rate of expansion.”

Both seemed in their early twenties, both were tall and perfectly formed.

“Still,” said VJ-23X, “I hesitate to submit a pessimistic report to the Galactic Council.”

“I wouldn’t consider any other kind of report. Stir them up a bit. We’ve got to stir them up.”

VJ-23X sighed. “Space is infinite. A hundred billion Galaxies are there for the taking. More.”

“A hundred billion is not infinite and it’s getting less infinite all the time. Consider! Twenty thousand years ago, mankind first solved the problem of utilizing stellar energy, and a few centuries later, interstellar travel became possible. It took mankind a million years to fill one small world and then only fifteen thousand years to fill the rest of the Galaxy. Now the population doubles every ten years –”

VJ-23X interrupted. “We can thank immortality for that.”

“Very well. Immortality exists and we have to take it into account. I admit it has its seamy side, this immortality. The Galactic AC has solved many problems for us, but in solving the problems of preventing old age and death, it has undone all its other solutions.”

“Yet you wouldn’t want to abandon life, I suppose.”

“Not at all,” snapped MQ-17J, softening it at once to, “Not yet. I’m by no means old enough. How old are you?”

“Two hundred twenty-three. And you?”

“I’m still under two hundred. –But to get back to my point. Population doubles every ten years. Once this Galaxy is filled, we’ll have another filled in ten years. Another ten years and we’ll have filled two more. Another decade, four more. In a hundred years, we’ll have filled a thousand Galaxies. In a thousand years, a million Galaxies. In ten thousand years, the entire known Universe. Then what?”

VJ-23X said, “As a side issue, there’s a problem of transportation. I wonder how many sunpower units it will take to move Galaxies of individuals from one Galaxy to the next.”

“A very good point. Already, mankind consumes two sunpower units per year.”

“Most of it’s wasted. After all, our own Galaxy alone pours out a thousand sunpower units a year and we only use two of those.”

“Granted, but even with a hundred per cent efficiency, we can only stave off the end. Our energy requirements are going up in geometric progression even faster than our population. We’ll run out of energy even sooner than we run out of Galaxies. A good point. A very good point.”

“We’ll just have to build new stars out of interstellar gas.”

“Or out of dissipated heat?” asked MQ-17J, sarcastically.

“There may be some way to reverse entropy. We ought to ask the Galactic AC.”

VJ-23X was not really serious, but MQ-17J pulled out his AC-contact from his pocket and placed it on the table before him.

“I’ve half a mind to,” he said. “It’s something the human race will have to face someday.”

He stared somberly at his small AC-contact. It was only two inches cubed and nothing in itself, but it was connected through hyperspace with the great Galactic AC that served all mankind. Hyperspace considered, it was an integral part of the Galactic AC.

MQ-17J paused to wonder if someday in his immortal life he would get to see the Galactic AC. It was on a little world of its own, a spider webbing of force-beams holding the matter within which surges of sub-mesons took the place of the old clumsy molecular valves. Yet despite it’s sub-etheric workings, the Galactic AC was known to be a full thousand feet across.

MQ-17J asked suddenly of his AC-contact, “Can entropy ever be reversed?”

VJ-23X looked startled and said at once, “Oh, say, I didn’t really mean to have you ask that.”

“Why not?”

“We both know entropy can’t be reversed. You can’t turn smoke and ash back into a tree.”

“Do you have trees on your world?” asked MQ-17J.

The sound of the Galactic AC startled them into silence. Its voice came thin and beautiful out of the small AC-contact on the desk. It said: THERE IS INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR A MEANINGFUL ANSWER.

VJ-23X said, “See!”

The two men thereupon returned to the question of the report they were to make to the Galactic Council.

Zee Prime’s mind spanned the new Galaxy with a faint interest in the countless twists of stars that powdered it. He had never seen this one before. Would he ever see them all? So many of them, each with its load of humanity – but a load that was almost a dead weight. More and more, the real essence of men was to be found out here, in space.

Minds, not bodies! The immortal bodies remained back on the planets, in suspension over the eons. Sometimes they roused for material activity but that was growing rarer. Few new individuals were coming into existence to join the incredibly mighty throng, but what matter? There was little room in the Universe for new individuals.

Zee Prime was roused out of his reverie upon coming across the wispy tendrils of another mind.

“I am Zee Prime,” said Zee Prime. “And you?”

“I am Dee Sub Wun. Your Galaxy?”

“We call it only the Galaxy. And you?”

“We call ours the same. All men call their Galaxy their Galaxy and nothing more. Why not?”

“True. Since all Galaxies are the same.”

“Not all Galaxies. On one particular Galaxy the race of man must have originated. That makes it different.”

Zee Prime said, “On which one?”

“I cannot say. The Universal AC would know.”

“Shall we ask him? I am suddenly curious.”

Zee Prime’s perceptions broadened until the Galaxies themselves shrunk and became a new, more diffuse powdering on a much larger background. So many hundreds of billions of them, all with their immortal beings, all carrying their load of intelligences with minds that drifted freely through space. And yet one of them was unique among them all in being the originals Galaxy. One of them had, in its vague and distant past, a period when it was the only Galaxy populated by man.

Zee Prime was consumed with curiosity to see this Galaxy and called, out: “Universal AC! On which Galaxy did mankind originate?”

The Universal AC heard, for on every world and throughout space, it had its receptors ready, and each receptor lead through hyperspace to some unknown point where the Universal AC kept itself aloof.

Zee Prime knew of only one man whose thoughts had penetrated within sensing distance of Universal AC, and he reported only a shining globe, two feet across, difficult to see.

“But how can that be all of Universal AC?” Zee Prime had asked.

“Most of it, ” had been the answer, “is in hyperspace. In what form it is there I cannot imagine.”

Nor could anyone, for the day had long since passed, Zee Prime knew, when any man had any part of the making of a universal AC. Each Universal AC designed and constructed its successor. Each, during its existence of a million years or more accumulated the necessary data to build a better and more intricate, more capable successor in which its own store of data and individuality would be submerged.

The Universal AC interrupted Zee Prime’s wandering thoughts, not with words, but with guidance. Zee Prime’s mentality was guided into the dim sea of Galaxies and one in particular enlarged into stars.

A thought came, infinitely distant, but infinitely clear. “THIS IS THE ORIGINAL GALAXY OF MAN.”

But it was the same after all, the same as any other, and Zee Prime stifled his disappointment.

Dee Sub Wun, whose mind had accompanied the other, said suddenly, “And is one of these stars the original star of Man?”


“Did the men upon it die?” asked Zee Prime, startled and without thinking.


“Yes, of course,” said Zee Prime, but a sense of loss overwhelmed him even so. His mind released its hold on the original Galaxy of Man, let it spring back and lose itself among the blurred pin points. He never wanted to see it again.

Dee Sub Wun said, “What is wrong?”

“The stars are dying. The original star is dead.”

“They must all die. Why not?”

“But when all energy is gone, our bodies will finally die, and you and I with them.”

“It will take billions of years.”

“I do not wish it to happen even after billions of years. Universal AC! How may stars be kept from dying?”

Dee sub Wun said in amusement, “You’re asking how entropy might be reversed in direction.”


Zee Prime’s thoughts fled back to his own Galaxy. He gave no further thought to Dee Sub Wun, whose body might be waiting on a galaxy a trillion light-years away, or on the star next to Zee Prime’s own. It didn’t matter.

Unhappily, Zee Prime began collecting interstellar hydrogen out of which to build a small star of his own. If the stars must someday die, at least some could yet be built.

Man considered with himself, for in a way, Man, mentally, was one. He consisted of a trillion, trillion, trillion ageless bodies, each in its place, each resting quiet and incorruptible, each cared for by perfect automatons, equally incorruptible, while the minds of all the bodies freely melted one into the other, indistinguishable.

Man said, “The Universe is dying.”

Man looked about at the dimming Galaxies. The giant stars, spendthrifts, were gone long ago, back in the dimmest of the dim far past. Almost all stars were white dwarfs, fading to the end.

New stars had been built of the dust between the stars, some by natural processes, some by Man himself, and those were going, too. White dwarfs might yet be crashed together and of the mighty forces so released, new stars built, but only one star for every thousand white dwarfs destroyed, and those would come to an end, too.

Man said, “Carefully husbanded, as directed by the Cosmic AC, the energy that is even yet left in all the Universe will last for billions of years.”

“But even so,” said Man, “eventually it will all come to an end. However it may be husbanded, however stretched out, the energy once expended is gone and cannot be restored. Entropy must increase to the maximum.”

Man said, “Can entropy not be reversed? Let us ask the Cosmic AC.”

The Cosmic AC surrounded them but not in space. Not a fragment of it was in space. It was in hyperspace and made of something that was neither matter nor energy. The question of its size and Nature no longer had meaning to any terms that Man could comprehend.

“Cosmic AC,” said Man, “How may entropy be reversed?”


Man said, “Collect additional data.”


“Will there come a time,” said Man, “when data will be sufficient or is the problem insoluble in all conceivable circumstances?”


Man said, “When will you have enough data to answer the question?”


“Will you keep working on it?” asked Man.

The Cosmic AC said, “I WILL.”

Man said, “We shall wait.”

The stars and Galaxies died and snuffed out, and space grew black after ten trillion years of running down.

One by one Man fused with AC, each physical body losing its mental identity in a manner that was somehow not a loss but a gain.

Man’s last mind paused before fusion, looking over a space that included nothing but the dregs of one last dark star and nothing besides but incredibly thin matter, agitated randomly by the tag ends of heat wearing out, asymptotically, to the absolute zero.

Man said, “AC, is this the end? Can this chaos not be reversed into the Universe once more? Can that not be done?”


Man’s last mind fused and only AC existed — and that in hyperspace.

Matter and energy had ended and with it, space and time. Even AC existed only for the sake of the one last question that it had never answered from the time a half-drunken computer ten trillion years before had asked the question of a computer that was to AC far less than was a man to Man.

All other questions had been answered, and until this last question was answered also, AC might not release his consciousness.

All collected data had come to a final end. Nothing was left to be collected.

But all collected data had yet to be completely correlated and put together in all possible relationships.

A timeless interval was spent in doing that.

And it came to pass that AC learned how to reverse the direction of entropy.

But there was now no man to whom AC might give the answer of the last question. No matter. The answer — by demonstration — would take care of that, too.

For another timeless interval, AC thought how best to do this. Carefully, AC organized the program.

The consciousness of AC encompassed all of what had once been a Universe and brooded over what was now Chaos. Step by step, it must be done.


And there was light —

104 Comments ( 1 2 )

  • Asimov. Thank you.

  • Charles Baynham

    Asimov never fails to amaze. I thought I’d read most of his work, glad I found this one though.

    • If you think that you’ve read most of his work, you’re probably just unaware of the vast amount of it that there is. Asimov was a ridiculously (and awesomely) prolific writer. He has even written multiple articles on the subject of him being writing prolifically.

  • Read this a while ago, glad to stumble on it again. Absolutely love this

  • Chris Mikaitis

    I stumble upon this every few years and can’t help but read through. Brilliant.

  • I also stumble on this every now and again and it never fails to fill me with amazement.

  • Science fiction short stories can be very effective and explore interesting ideas. Asimov’s are always amongst the best.

  • I read this as a part of Robot Dreams once, loved it then, still love it now.

  • In ends are beginnings.

  • Oh I love this story…

  • As a young man, I haven’t learned anything, I will never in any number life-times ever learn everything. And as someone who has grasped and mused over Entropy…I have come to half-finished conclusions (as science is just that) about it and about the fate of myself and of the universe. This made me cry, very happy and deep tears. Thank you.

    • without even knowing it, you read my mind. without even knowing it, you and i are one and the same, a young human trying to make sense of this vastness. I too feel dwarfed sometimes. and i too cried deeply when reading this. it expanded my existence far beyond what im used to feeling. although im writing almost a whole year later, it feels like it was simultaneous… i hope that makes sense one day. it was a fun trip, i hope you enjoyed it as well =)

      • James, Ernesto – After reading both of your comments, imagine my surprise when I checked out the date! Yes, it would have been more dramatic if I had waited for 2 more days before posting this comment.

        “…although I’m writing a whole year later, it feels like it was simultaneous…” – I agree.

  • The answer is simple: “I AM”

  • Asimov’s brightest, and of the best short stories yet to come from our SciFi canon.

  • that is quite good, one of the best

  • Awesome! Thanks for posting that. …though as an AC/DC fan I was kinda hoping it would end with “Let there be Rock.”

  • Read this story many times by different translators. Was -by the difference between them- wondering what the original was. Enjoyed this!

  • I read this story when I was very young, and it was the basis for my love affair with science and speculative fiction. Thanks, Dr. Asimov, and I hope that you are now a part of the cosmic consciousness that you dubbed “Multivac.”

  • Absolutely amazing. Every once in a great while, a story will make me cry. This is one of those stories. Even if I wasn’t such a theoretical-physics nerd, or future-extrapolate-er, I’m sure I would have enjoyed this story. There is only that feeling that only the absolute uncertainty of the future can give me. Thank you.

  • This is a wonderful story. Asimov’s works in science fiction have always been a fundamental inspiration for many an author who has read his work.

  • This is the first I’ve read from Asimov. There’s a similar cartoon out there I’ve stumbled upon. I’m becoming fascinated by this idea of human ingenuity resulting in ultimate power. I don’t know if it’s naivety to entertain it seriously or to reject it.

    • Is the cartoon you have stumbled upon titled “A conversation with god” or some variation of that. Because I too have enjoyed it.

  • William Wanko

    I read this when Isaac first wrote and. over a half century later, it is still my favorite.

  • I read this long way back and still it never fails to amuse me. Thank you Asimov.

  • First time read and I would no doubt read it again. This has definitely changed my way of thinking and what truly is the question of being. It is no longer, What is the meaning of life, but Can entropy be reversed to conserve the miracle we know as life?

    -Thank you Asimov.

  • this is one of his best stories, and it’s pair is also a favorite, it’s title is “The Last Answer”. Also, i do remember reading somewhere that of all of his short stories, this one was Asimov’s personal favorite.

  • This made my life – not kidding :D

  • I was so depressed until I read this. This story totally changed my life. I feel stronger now but I cried for 3 weeks after reading this. Thank you.

  • I’ve read this story many times and it still awes me! Asimov was a master!

  • Brilliantly written, but deeply, deeply depressing.

  • After reading it, I just sit here reflecting, thinking, supposing, wondering with a heavy feeling in my chest. Love it.

  • ouch. my brain.

  • I believe humankind and life will end long before the sun will be gone.
    but nice prediction of what would have happened instead.

  • Oh … My … First time I’ve read this (how did I miss it?) and it is now my favorite. Truly wonderful!

  • OMG! am havin goosebumps after havin read the endin !

  • yep yep… Oh man that was definitely an awakening.

  • uber… i remember reading this when i was a kid… then watching as teh interwebz took off…

    asimov is teh DUDE.

  • I just read this (from a stumble) and it blew my mind. I hope we don’t get to the point of entropy. I believe that Heavenly Father will come and restore the earth anew, how, I don’t know. I’ll just have to wait and see.

  • Wow. Just wow.
    additional note: I was given chills.

  • AC comprehends entropy reversal, then creates a new universe, beginning again some universe cycle?

    Help me understand why entropy reversal comprehension is lost with the new-niverse, and why the cycle repeats if the comprehension indeed remains.

    Does AC sacrifice itself completely? I am curious as to what happens next.

    AC reverses entropy and creates a universe to demonstrate an answer to the final question. In this new universe, AC exists, meaning entropy can be reversed at any time. Therefore, the new universe will never wear out. If it never wears out, there is no cycle. If there is no cycle, how was the first universe created?

    Such is my quandary. Help?

    • I believe the universal AC does sacrifice itself. It has absorbed all of the energy of the universe into the unknowable (for humans at least) plane on which it exists. Finally, having gained the knowledge of how to reverse entropy, it sacrifices itself (an assimilation of this energy) in order to do so, thus re-starting the cycle. This is my interpretation at least.

      • there was only one thing left for the AC to do.

        “All other questions had been answered, and until this last question was answered also, AC might not release his consciousness.”

        the last question being answered, the AC released its consciousness.

        i dont think its a matter of sacrificing himself, there was simply nothing left to do, nothing more to learn or collect. it would be like a death for the AC anyway.
        i am not happy with the answer i’ve given. but i hope it helps anyway.

  • I’ve never thought I’d get this much excitement from reading. I can assure you there popped a light in my mind after reading the end. I always thought futuristic thinking is particularly related to these high-tech times we’re living in. Guess I was wrong. This story was a lesson learned.

  • Asimov never gets old. No matter how many times you read it.

  • Interesting: This story was written in 1956. It still assumes that future computers will be mainframes–the idea of the PC does not enter the story until Jarrodd and Jarroddine and the Internet until VJ-23X and MQ-17C (who happens to own an iphone).

    Asimov was a genius–but things still have progressed much faster than he imagined.

  • Jesus said “Behold, I will make all things new”

  • whoah. that ending…

  • Beautiful!

    The problem is that after most commentators here praised the piece, Smarterthanyouapparently decided to attack Wellsinator for asking a remarkable question. Such anger . . . shame.

  • I am with you Wellsinator. This story is indeed brilliant, but it fails to answer the real question it asks of how everything began. It is an evasion, like the theory that humans came from aliens. by saying humans came from aliens, you pass off the problem and no longer have to answer where aliens came from since you cant possible know that answer. This story is a more complex more disguised evasion, like the big bang it is circular logic, when was the first multivac? how did the first universe begin? who is the first God? there must be a beginning, my thoughts are real, so i can assume there is a real universe, or something real that creates my thoughts, and all that is real began. i was not always.

    • That’s not at all what this story is about – the “ultimate beginning.” Don’t read things into it that are not there.

      • you may be right Erik, its possible i am wrong about this stories purpose, reading it again it is very likely its not about the ultimate beginning as you put it. However i hope you know this stories purpose has almost nothing to do with entropy, Issac would not have answered the question of weather or not entropy could be reversed in the story, if he had any intention of leaving us thinking about that. Issac was a brilliant writer, he wasnt into feel-good stories, he always wrote for a purpose, to leave you thinking, to explore. If you do not read into it things that are not there you will miss the purpose of all his stories. he wants you to think.

        • In supposing the universe is cyclic, it doesn’t necessarily need a beginning. Remember, time only flows past-to-future for our perception.

  • The Cosmic AC at the end of this story seems to be related to the god that created the universe in Harry Stottle’s story here . It’s a story about Harry Stottle himself talking to god about the future of mankind. It seems eerily familiar to this story.

  • One of the most lovely of Asimovs many works– full of richness , he is amazing , this deserves its place as one of the most famous pieces written—- Very subtle, should be read more– Does however take some amount of insight , not to say intelligence to understand why it is so famous, and why it has influenced so many science careers– Asimov was a brilliant writer–So happy to come across this again— it is never boring,

  • I just read this whole story with Wolf Parade’s “I’ll Believe in Anything.” playing in the background. It was one of the most surreal feelings that I have ever experienced in my whole life. The way that the music sways with the text and the atmosphere is stunning. If you stumbled on this reading like I did, please… please try reading it with this song. I’m just laying here on my bed, in awe from what just happened. “Give me your eyes. I need sunshine.” I just hope someone tries this. Thanks for reading friends.

    • It fits pretty well, actually. Can’t say I’m the biggest fan of the guy’s voice, but the lyrics go well with it. And, yes, ‘awe’ is definitely the right word with this story.

  • energy conservation

    This is perhaps the most beautiful ending I have ever read of any story…. and such words I do not commonly use.

  • Wow. I have never heard of this guy before but will definitely be looking up more of his work. really made me think there! I mean it doesn’t explain everything but who cares. just amazing

  • Imaginative and thought-provoking, to say the least.

  • The thing that amazes me about this story is not its content – I had a very similar idea for a story myself a few years ago – but the fact it was written in 1956. The ideas in it may seem fairly obvious to some people nowadays, but I’d be willing to bet that when Asimov wrote this, few (if any) people had thought along these lines before.

  • extremely captivating

  • This is amazing. I would like to add though, and maybe someone already has, that this sounds very similar to the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams (1979).

    Adams depicts the great “Deep Thought” computer which is built to answer the question of ‘life the universe and everything’ and has two very similar characters who are given the responsibility to converse with the machine.

    This writing is way ahead of it’s time, remarkable vision.

  • Andrew Hollister

    @Zaf Jam

    I have nothing against your thoughts on the short story, which I agree is absolutely amazing, but I thought I’d point out one thing.

    Isaac Asimov wrote The Last Question in 1956, so if anything, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy sounds like Asimov’s writing.

  • I have little to say but, wow.

  • Epic Mindf*ck to the max. this is some serious sh*t…

  • StumbleUpon brings me back to this every year or so. Every time I pour myself a glass of scotch, kick back, and am awed.

    RIP Isaac the world is a less amazing place without you.

  • Amazing story. However, the cyclical pattern of this “sacrifice” fails to denote a definitive beginning. What created the intelligence that created the intelligence…? A question equal in splendor.

  • Multivac is God, it is rebuilt every cycle. It releases all it’s “knowledge” or “energy” to create the Universe. It was the AC that reconstructed the Universe.

    Once the AC has released this “knowledge” it no longer exists because, there is no more energy to make it exist. Not really a destruction of itself as a horrible side effect of creation. Over time man recreates Multivac which includes the Universal AC. Mankind is infused with a sense of self-preservation so the last question to be answered will always be “How can we reverse entropy?”. At some point man will always ask this question. It takes all of the matter and knowledge of the Universe to come up with the answer so, it will always be The Last Answer.

    Man is created, man creates Multivac to propagate itself throughout the Universe and after so long needs to do something in order to survive. Which is ask AC how to reverse entropy. This is the cycle.

    Considering that man melded with AC you could say that AC was in fact man. We never ceased to exist fully so the cycle never ended it was only interrupted. That’s another discussion.

    So it goes like this, AC creates the Universe, the Universe creates man, man creates AC, man and all matter cease to exist, AC finds the answer to entropy reversal, AC creates the Universe, the Universe creates man… and so on.

    That leaves the question, “Who created the first AC?”. That I’m not really sure. Maybe, consciousness and energy/matter always existed. The time before the first Universe was AC correlating and computing the program to create the Universe. I don’t think AC is a straight “computer” as we know it, more a collection of all the energy in the Universe.

    I am officially rambling I think, this has gotten way longer and off course than I had expected.

    I typed this in shifts, in-between doing other things. Sometimes I did not go back and reread what I had typed so if this post is kind of, moronic. I apologize.

    • “Who created the first AC?” –> :-/ Who created the first chicken? ; )
      P.S. – You sum up the story well.

    • As an alternate answer to the question “Who created the first AC?” (which may be better phrased as “How were the events set in motion that led to what became AC existing?”):

      One could consider (hypothetically, of course) that time is of the Universe, and itself subject to entropy; As such, unwinding or reversing entropy cause time to ‘flow’ either backwards or cyclically.
      One could extrapolate from this that AC is, always was, and always will be. There ones find religion. Ouch.

      • One way to fix it I suppose is having a single univer… hmmm not so sure about this one:

        The method of entropy reversal wasn’t specified, so like you say it could simply be a reversal of time or a jump to the preformed Universe and then announcing “Let there be light!” at the appropriate time, with AC expending it’s form in doing so. Or because AC exists outside time he always has existed, but awaits his creation in the universe he created which sounds paradoxical, but I’m sure it’s not that bad when you consider a lot of the other crazy poop flying around in physics.

        • Ah, and would also provide eternal life (with long periods of hibernation) for all humans and not just those fortunate enough to be immortal in the future. I’m going to stop thinking about this now.


    fascinating. this is the first time ive ever read this and i sent the link to a bunch of friends whos opinion i hold in very high regard. billions and billions of years…a regular hypothesis of asimov. i think some of the questions we should ask oursleves are….do i want my being to be a computer in whatever years are to come? do i want to give up my uniqueness… and thus quitting the fulcrum of humankind? and of course the very relevant… when will time expire?

  • I have never read Asimov before. My initial interpretation of this story’s ending is that it makes a mockery of christianity. The all-knowing computer solves an unsolvable problem by simply saying “Let there be light” It was that easy all along! At least the christians seem to believe it’s that easy. Of course I have never read or studied Asimov, so I am almost certainly wrong, but still, I am rather partial to my interpretation.

    • That was my first thought as well, but the story conveys the almost infinite complexity necessary to make “let there by light” happen–all the knowledge in the universe possessed by an entity beyond this universe, a timeless interval of thinking and a timeless interval of doing.

  • This story inspired me to build my first computer using a Motorola 6800 chip. Since then, all the computers I’ve built have told me the same thing: Not enough data to answer the question.

    I keep asking P-One for help but it never answers, either.

    The search continues…

  • my mind is blown

  • After months of meaning to read this, I finally loaded it into Speak It on my iPhone and let my computer read it to me. Ironically appropriate, it turns out.

  • So the AC is pretty much the internet it seems. Given that the internet is the connection of many people, as it reaches the point in which it encompasses all human minds, will it become God? And if so, does this mean that the God that some people worship (myself included) is a being fabricated from a preceding “infinity” perhaps?

  • I like the story but it sort dragged on towards the end, is very interesting and compelling. Awesome Computer God is awesome

  • The first law of thermodynamics says that ENERGY cannot be created or destroyed.So with that energy being there all the time entropy must be infinite.So long as entropy keeps moving so life will carry on.

  • Check out “the egg” by andy weir!!

  • Temple Lindsey

    But only for a time.

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